Overview Plumeria's generally are not affected by most fungal diseases in our dry climate especially during the warm season. However during the cooler winter months these common diseases can pop up especially if the soil remains damp or your plants are overwatered. Young rooted cuttings are also suspecitable to these fungal diseases. Here are some pictures to help you identify problems with your plumerias. We also offer suggestions on how to prevent and treat fungal diseases.
Rust Diseases or Rust Fungus(Coleosporium domingense) occurs on
a wide variety of plants, including Plumeria. In general, however
and given rust is rather specific in its host range. Many rust
several kinds of microscopic spores.
With such forms, the fungus
may infect two entirely different plants living part of the year on one
host and the remainder of the year on the other. (which in the case
This now familiar fungal disease, plumeria rust, is
known by its conspicuous, powdery, yellow-orange
lesions on leaves. It presense can always be
determined be the appearance of yellow, orange or reddish-brown powdery pustules
the leaves, stems, or buds of the infected plant. The spores
in these pustules are carried by splashing rain or air currents to
healthy plants where new infections will occur.
Rust Fungus does not kill Plumerias, but can rapidly
Most plumeria cultivars grown
are susceptible to the pathogen and have
numerous powdery spore masses on the underside of
leaves. Leaves can turn brown and fall from the plant
as early as two months after the springtime flush of
new leaves is infected by the fungus.
to Control Plumeria / Frangipani Rust Fungus Rust fungus will over-winter on infected
1. Keep the growing area clean
of fallen leaves.
2. Carefully remove and place
leaves into trash bags.
3. Mild outbreaks can be
controlled by fungicides such as GreenLight "Fung-Away" spray.
Black Tip Fungus is very hard to
once it gets a big head start. Black Tip usually strikes in the
spring and in the fall, but can pop up at any time of the year.
Tip Fungus loves cool, wet, and shady areas. When the conditions are
is can pop up vitually overnight, and spread like wildfire.
If left uncontrolled
it will kill the growth tips of mature trees, and kill entirely a small
plumeria. If Black Tip has killed the growth tips on a
plumeria and temperatures warm up, the black tip will die off.
the blacked tips will callus and break off. Next, the plumeria
branch back out as if it was pruned. Sometime on a tree it's not
all bad, because it gets a ton of new branches, but if it happens every
year, or disgustingly, twice a year you will have hell getting you
Best advice is... try to prevent any black tip outbreaks.... if one occurs spray and fight it every step of the way... if you lose the battle, then you get a ton new branches, because if you fight Black tip with Fungicides it won't die.
to Prevent Black Tip Fungus Black Tip fungus will over winter on
1. Every 2 or 3 weeks apply a fungicide such as
"Fung-Away II" granules to the
soil. (about a hand full per pot)
2. Grow plumerias in as much
sun as possible in the cooler months. In the Summer late afternoon shade is needed!!
3. Do NOT spray the plant with
at night when temp are below 60
F. (you can water, just not the leaves etc.)
4. Spray Plumerias and *entire
greenhouses every 2 weeks as a preventative treatment with
even if there are no signs of Black Tip.
*entire area :: walls, pots,
soil, grass, floor... everything.
to Control Black Tip Fungus Black Tip fungus will over winter on
1. Reduce humidity and try to
area as dry as possible.
2. Relocate the plumeria ...
to help a lot.
3. in the greenhouse are use
fans.... this will make all the difference in the
more fans the better.
4. Apply Greenlight "Fung-Away
to the soil. (about a hand
5. Use Fung-away spray on the
and the *entire area. (Spray the
area once per week) *entire area :: walls, pots,
soil, grass, floor... everything.
6. Spot spray the infected
with Fung-Away every other day or more. (continue until you
control then back off the spray)
(Fung-Away spray does
to harm plumerias, even in large doses.)
7. Try other Fungicides
8. Keep up the good fight until
warmer Temperatures arrive, which will kill the black tip fungus.
Stem Rot ( Black leg or Black Rot )
is a disease that causes the decaying of the inner layers of
the Plumeria. The plumeria stem becomes soft and squishy as the inside
rots away. Stem rot moves very quickly and is almost always fatal
to cuttings. Stem Rot usually occurs while trying to root cuttings or during
Cool temperatures and wet soil are the favorite playground
for Stem Rot. Rooting and newly rooted plumerias during their first
overwintering are at highest risk for developing stem rot.
a Plumeria has survived it's first winter, Stem Rot is usually not a problem.
Cuttings: Infected cuttings typically fail to root. Instead
they develop rot that gradually moves up the stem. Leaf wilt and leaf spotting
may be evident. The rotted stem eventually becomes shriveled, turns dull
dark brown to black in color, and falls over in its pot.
Plumerias: Although rare, mature plants can lose a
branch or two from stem rot and/or freeze damage. Freeze damage looks
almost the same as Stem Rot. In either case, with mature plumeria
just cut off the affected areas and a mature plumeria will bounce right
back with new branches and leaves.
*** Because Stem Rot is virtually untreatable, We offer tips to help prevent it.
to Avoid Stem Rot on Plumerias
Note: There is no effective treatment for stem
rot once it becomes established.
1. Be Sanitary. Keep the growing area
clean and free of fallen leaves. (Keep the Greenhouse area as clean as possible)
2. Dust cuttings with fungicide before
potting in media.
3. Always use "rooting hormone With Fungicide"
4. Root Cuttings in individual sterilized
pots. (if a plant has rotted
or died in a pot do not use it for rooting)
5. Do Not use Livestock manure in the
6. Use a fast draining media like Perlite
for rooting cuttings. for proper Rooting information
7. Do Not overwater rooting cuttings...
when it doubt, wait a week.
8. Repeat .. Do Not overwater rooting
the growing season and winter storage check your plants by squeezing
the base of the Plumeria just above the soil line. It should
During winter storage keep you plants as warm as possible, Store them
in a sun room or warm laundry room etc. for the first winter. (...at
least above 40 degrees F.)
to keep the Plumeria growing with grow lights during it's first winter.
12. At first
sign of Stem Rot treat it with liquid Fungicide and try to keep the soil
13. If all
else fails...take a cutting from the plant at any location you can get
clean healthy wood, and try to root it.
If you are having reoccurring problems with Stem Rot, I would
stress to you, use rooting hormone with fungicide Switch your rooting
media to 2/3rds Perlite and DO NOT overwater.
(FMV) Virus-causing color break in Plumerias
Based upon visual observation of infected plumeria plants from various places for a
number of years, it seems that Frangipani Mosaic Virus (FMV) has a minimal effect
on the growth and the health of most plumerias with the exception of severe cases in
a few cultivars. Its symptoms may include, e.g., leaf malformation, mottled leaf,
and/or splash or color break (CB), especially on the petals. Some plumeria trees
appear normal with only an occasional CB on the petals, which is attractive to some people
From my point of view, however, the
color break is unacceptable since it distorts the
original colors of flowers. In addition, unlike
other diseases, it is incurable, and the virus
that resides in the infected plant may
accidently spread to other plumeria trees
somehow, and finally, the whole collection may
all be infected.
According to ICTVdb, the FMV transmitted by
mechanical inoculation not involving a vector.
Suggested reading related to Frangipani Mosaic Virus: click... ICTVdb and DPVWeb
to Avoid FMV Virus in Plumerias
Note: There is no effective treatment for FMV transmitted by
mechanical inoculation not involving a vector.
Viral-contaminated cutting tools used in grafting and pruning are likely the most
common means of FMV transmission. Unfortunately, it is how this particular virus
spreads rapidly and covertly in plumerias, especially in Thailand
Nowadays, symptoms are commonly seen in plumerias
which are sold in the markets everywhere. Some virused plumerias may look normal,
but the symptoms generally appear in a later stage. Thus it is important to address
this issue to increase growers' awareness,
to keep the virus under control, and to save
all great plumeria cultivars from being
Follow these Practices to prevent the spread of FMV
1. In an attempt to keep the whole plumeria
collection virus-free, newly acquired plumerias should be isolated over a period
of time to observe or check (test) for
the presence of virus.
2. All FMV-infected plants should be separated from the rest of
collection and/or destroyed.
3. Using a sterilized cutting tool is also the key to
preventing the spread of the FMV, which may be present in the plumeria trees
growing in the garden, to the rest of the collection.
4. My routine practice of pruning
plumerias in the garden is to carry as many sterilized knives as
possible with me and
use only one knife per plumeria plant. They are then sterilized in boiling water for
5. Plumerias with the virus should not be allowed to be registered as a new cultivar
based upon its appearance of the flowers with the color break. It is just a diseased
plant, not an innovative one
Summary We hope you have found this information useful in helping you prevent and treat fungal diseases on your plants. We suggest you all maintain safe pruning practices we have suggested to help prevent or limit the spread of (FMV),Frangipani Mosaic Virus. We wish you happy growing of these beautiful trees.